Judo is a modern Japanese martial art founded by Kano Jigoro in Japan in the late nineteenth century. The style is well known for its competitive element(shiai), where the object is to either throw one's opponent to the ground with speed and control, pin an opponent or force an opponent to surrender by either joint locking the elbow or applying a choke. Judo also includes striking and weapons defenses, but only in pre-arranged forms (kata). These are not allowed in judo competition or free practice (randori).